Tuesday, June 25, 2019

Song Lyrics: Odyssey to Tamsui (流浪到淡水) by Chin Man-Wang (金門王), Lee Ping-Huei (李炳輝) and Chen Ming-chang (陳明章)

Original music video:

Performance by lyricist Chen Ming-chang:

Song: Odyssey to Tamsui (流浪到淡水)
Performer: Chin Man-Wang (金門王) and Lee Ping-Huei (李炳輝)
Lyrics: Chen Ming-chang (陳明章)

ū-iân, bô-iân, ta̍k-ke lâi tsoh hué
Fated or not, we make a living together

sio-tsiú ím tsi̍t pue, hōo-ta--lah, hōo-ta--lah
Drink a cup of wine, drink up, drink up

huānn tio̍h hong-khîm, thê-tio̍h gi-ta, siang-lâng khan tsoh hué
Taking an accordion, slinging a guitar, two of us set off to work

uī-tio̍h sing-ua̍h liû-lōng kàu tām-tsuí
We ramble to Tamsui in order to make a living

siūnn-khí kòo-hiong sim-ài ê lâng, kám-tsîng iōng tsia kāu
Think of the people I love in my hometown, my feelings are so thick

tsiah tsai-iánn tshi tsîng sī tē-it gōng ê lâng
Now I know that infatuation is the stupidest of follies

sio-tsiú lo̍h-âu, sim-tsîng khin-sang, ut-tsut pàng-khì siá
Swallow our wine, lighten our spirits, let go of our frustrations

óng-sū tsiong ī tòng-tsuè tsi̍t tiûnn bāng
Turn our past into a dream

siūnn-khí kòo-hiong sim-ài ê lâng, kiōng ī pàng buē-kì
Think of the people I love in my hometown and let them go

liû-lōng kàu thann-hiong, tiông-sin kuè li̍t-tsí
Wander to another village and start a new life

gún m̄-sī hí-ài hi-hua
It's not that we like to be impractical

gún tsí-sī khuân-kíng lâi thua-buâ
Our situation is just so arduous

lâng-kheh nā kiò gún, hong-ú mā tio̍h kiânn
When customers call us we go rain or shine

uī ī tshiùnn-tshut liû-luân ê tsîng-kua
And sing for them a nostalgic love song

lîn-sing phû sím, khí-khí-lo̍h-lo̍h, m̄-bián lâi huân-ló
Sink and float, rise and fall, there's no use in worrying

ū sî gue̍h înn, ū sî iā buē pînn
Sometimes the moon is full, sometimes it is is not flat

thàn tio̍h e-hng huann-huann-hí-hí, tàu-tīn lâi tsoh hué
Happily take the night, make a living together

lí lâi thiàu-bú, guá lâi liām kua-si
You dance, I sing the lyrics

ū-iân, bô-iân, ta̍k-ke lâi tsoh hué
Fated or not, we make a living together

sio-tsiú ím tsi̍t pue, hōo-ta--lah, hōo-ta--lah
Drink a cup of wine, drink up, drink up

  • The phrase for drink up 予焦啦 is often written 乎乾啦 and literally means "make it dry."

Tuesday, May 21, 2019

Song Lyrics: 追追追 Chase Chase Chase by 黃妃 N̂g Hui

This is a pop song originally sung by Hokkien singer N̂g Hui (黃妃). I first heard of it via a cover by Chen Ming-chang (陳明章), who actually composed the song and lyrics for the original.

There's a guy on the bongos on this version that looks like he is having a ton of fun.

Song: 追追追 (Chase Chase Chase)
Original Artist: 黃妃 (N̂g Hui)
Cover Artist and Composer: Chen Ming-chang (陳明章)

tshian kang suí, tshian kang gue̍h, tshian lí phâng
千江水 千江月 千里帆
A thousand rivers, a thousand moons, a thousand sails

tshian tāng san, tshian lí kang san, guá siōng suí
千重山 千里江山 我上媠A
A thousand mountains, a thousand miles of river and mountain, I am most beautiful

bān lí gu̍eh, bān lí siânn, bān lí tshiū
萬里月 萬里城 萬里愁
A million moons, a million cities, a million sorrows

bān lí ian, bān lí hong-song, guá siōng iau-kiau
萬里煙 萬里風霜 我上妖嬌
A million smokes, a mllion hardships, I am most charming

siánn-mih khuán ê sat-khì, siánn-mih khuán ê kak-sik
啥物款的殺氣 啥物款的角色
What kind of murderous mood, what kind of role

siánn-mih khuán ê hiau-hiông, pik gún tshik má tuī hong-tîn
啥物款的梟雄 迫阮策馬墜風塵
What kind of person, makes us to press on and fall from our heights

siánn-mih khuán ê ài-tsîng, siánn-mih khuán ê tuī-lo̍h
啥物款的愛情 啥物款的墜落
What kind of love, what kind of fall

siánn-mih khuán ê un-liû, hōo gún li̍t-iā lóng siūnn lí
啥物款的溫柔 乎阮日夜攏想你
What kind of warmth, makes us think of you day and night

Saturday, April 20, 2019

Song Lyrics: 最遙遠的距離 The Furthest Distance by 流氓阿德 Ardor Huang feat. 蔡依玲

Song: 最遙遠的距離 (The Furthest Distance)
Artist: 流氓阿德 (Ardor Huang) feat. 蔡依玲

lí ê hîng-iánn, sī guá ê la'h li't
你的形影 是我的日曆
Your whereabouts are my calendar

lí ê mîa-lī, sī guá ê li't-kì
你的名字 是我的日記
Your name is my journal

lí ê hí-nōo, lí ê ai-lo'k, sī guá ê sù-kuì
你的喜怒 你的哀樂 是我的四季
Your love and hate, your sorrow and joy, are my four seasons

Thursday, March 21, 2019

Song Lyrics: 撼山河 (Shaking the Mountains and Rivers) by 陳明章 (Chen Ming-chang)

This is a song by Chen Ming-chang (陳明章), who has had a fairly prolific career. His Wikipedia entry in Chinese is very long but unfortunately, very little is written about him in English. A few highlights: in the '80s during his mid 20s, he worked in the day helping his mother after his father suffered from a stroke, and at night he taught guitar classes. He began to ponder the question: "what is Taiwanese music?" because of the influence of Chen Da (陳達) and from learning about the 228 Incident. His big break was writing the soundtrack for Hou Hsiao-hsien's Dust in the Wind (戀戀風塵) and The Puppetmaster (戲夢人生); he would later also write the soundtrack for Hirokasu Kore'eda's Maborosi (幻の光). In the late 80s, as martial law was lifted he and others started a musical group called Blacklist Studio (黑名單工作室) which put out protest songs against the KMT government (for example, Taipei Empire 台北帝國) in Hokkien.

I really enjoyed the shamisen solo in this song, preformed by Kenta Kurumatami (車谷建太).

Song: 撼山河 (Shaking the Mountains and Rivers)
Artist: 陳明章 (Chen Ming-chang)

tsiàng san hô, tsáu thian-gâi
唱山河 走天涯
Sing the mountains and rivers, walk to the end of the world

lîn-sing tsòng-khuài it pue ím
Life is a carefree, a cup of drink

Thursday, March 7, 2019

228 Massacre in Chiayi and Alishan article

A new piece I translated is up at the Taiwan Gazette:

The 228 Massacre in Chiayi: "The Airport and Train Station Were Washed with Blood"

Another piece which I helped out a little bit on (mostly was not due to me though) is also now up:

The 228 Massacre in Alishan: “All We Have Left are Ashes and Bones”

This was a short article that took forever to translate, because there were so many names of people and also places that no longer exist (e.g. schools that existed in the Japanese era and are now renamed or gone). The article itself was encyclopedic, often going through long lists of names of people. We cut the names that don't appear in the narrative of the article, but I'll include them later in this note. There was also a part about Tsou who came to assist the rebellion in Chiayi, and we moved that content to another article (to appear soon).

One decision I made in this translation was to romanize most of the names in Taiwanese Hokkien, because I felt that most of the victims would have gone by these names at that time. Some of them, like painter Tan Ting-pho (陳澄波, Chen Chengbo in Pinyin, Chen Cheng-po in Wade-Giles) already have well-established romanizations in Hokkien. I romanized aboriginal (e.g. Tsou) names using their native languages rather than the alternative Chinese name they may have adopted.

There is that saying about a single death being a tragedy, but many deaths is a statistic. These statistics are mentioned a lot, but I think what tends to be overlooked is how much cultural heritage was destroyed by the KMT during the 228 Massacre and subsequent White Terror. Their attack was two-pronged: first, they destroyed the existing cultural landscape by killing or silencing the existing artistic and intellectual establishment; and second, they imposed their own nationalistic vision of culture through their party-state education system. Taiwan could only begin to rediscover its own culture after the end of martial law; we will never know how much has been forever lost. The KMT will often apologize for its killings, but it rarely apologizes for its cultural destruction. Partly this is because there is less demand for it, but partly I think they don't feel bad, that what they had replaced it with is "better" -- some even feel proud of it (some feel they were simply replacing Japanese culture, but I think this is clearly untrue -- I think their hatred of Japan caused them to equate Japanese influence with Japanese culture). We should all remember that Taiwan existed before the R.O.C. (Republic of China, the state to the KMT's party) and that the culture and institutions of the R.O.C. are part of Taiwan, but do not define Taiwan.

To this end, I'd like to share a little about two artists I learned about in the translation of this article (though one of them will appear in the Tsou article later). In this article we can see how eager most Taiwanese at the time were for Chinese rule. Few of them advocated for independence and many of them joined patriotic organizations within the Republic of China framework, but they were killed when they couldn't toe the line. The modern-day meaning of these events is clear: do Taiwanese want to try this again? Whenever a foreign power enters Taiwan, whether the Japanese or the Chinese KMT, there is bloodshed and cultural destruction. Today, the cultural and political gulf between Taiwan and China is as wide as it has ever been.

Finally, the material which we removed:
  • The name of the KMT-installed Chiayi mayor was Sun Chi-jun’s (孫志俊).
  • The militias that converged at Chiayi were from: Putai (布袋), Yanshui (鹽水), Putzu (朴子), Chiali (佳里), Liuchiao (六腳), Fanlu (番路), Douliu (斗六), Taichung (台中), Puli (埔里), Beigang (北港), and Tainan Cheng Kung University (台南工學院).
  • Of the ten people taken from Liucuo Village and executed by the road by KMT soldiers, three are named: Khu Sui-ing (邱垂榮), Khu Ong-tshing (邱旺松), and Khu Lian-tshun (邱連春).
  • Lin Wen-shu (林文樹) also went to Tsui-siong Airport to negotiate with the KMT, and was killed.
  • Of the three female members who went to the airport to negotiate and who were let go, two are named: Chiou Yuan-yang (邱鴛鴦) and Liu Chuan-lai (劉傳來).
  • A list of names of people executed on March 23rd: Chen Zhen (陳陣), Lu Yi (盧鎰), Hsu Hsien-chang (蘇憲章, Chiayi director of the Shin Sheng Daily News 新生報), Chen Rong-mao (陳容貌), Shih Chu-wen (施珠文), Lin Teng-ke (林登科), Huang Shui-Shu (黃水樹), Hsueh Chieh-te (薛皆得).

Wednesday, February 27, 2019

Liuzhangli article

A new piece I translated is up at the Taiwan Gazette:

The Graveyard at the Center of Taiwan’s White Terror Period

The source article was really good and nuanced, and I really enjoyed translating it. I had a chance to visit the actual site earlier this year; I'll start with a little commentary on the article before I go into a trip report (mostly to help those who are interested in visiting it).

The article does a good job of showing that the victims of White Terror are not a homogeneous group; it is a group that includes both dissenters and foreign spies. In debates on White Terror, the focus is usually on one of these extremes. However, I believe that categories are never so rigid; meaning, there are always people who are standing near or on the fence. When is it right to seek a foreign power to overthrow the regime at home? The answer obviously depends on how "bad" your regime at home is, and how "good" the regime replacing it will be. These are judgement calls, which individuals sometimes make poorly. It is clear to us today that the CCP would not have been a better choice for Taiwan.

Regarding the actions of the KMT, the debate seems to mostly fall along the lines of whether the KMT was justified in its actions or not, with one side claiming that those were "messy times" where extreme action was necessary and the other side saying that political executions can never be excused. I tend to lean toward the latter camp in this situation, because I believe the widespread antipathy to the KMT regime was of its own making. That is, the KMT perpetrated the 228 Massacre, the KMT installed a fascist regime to consolidate its own control over civil society, the KMT imported a nationalistic party-state from another land, and the KMT deliberately killed, imprisoned or otherwise locked out the existing Taiwanese intelligentsia in favor of cultivating its own power base. These actions have nothing to do with protecting Taiwan from Communist invasion; the threat of this was merely an excuse. These actions have more to do with their own survival as a regime, their tendency toward heavy-handed government, and their ideology of Chinese nationalism. This doesn't negate whatever policy achievements they may claim, but it is a stain on their legacy that can't be ignored. The onus must always be on the dictator to prove that his methods were truly necessary.

Finally, it is worth mentioning that many who were killed during White Terror were suspected of spying by a very paranoid government. Their guilt should not be taken as a given, and we should differentiate between having leftist or even Communist sympathies versus actually spying for the CCP. One example is left-leaning Huang Rong-can, named in the article as the woodcutter who depicted the 228 Massacre, who was executed after a spy named him in a confession (today I believe this charge has been cast in doubt by accounts of known Communist Party members from Taiwan). There were yet others who were killed for rebellion during the 228 Massacre, such as the Tsou musician Uyongu Yata’uyungana; his story will appear in a forthcoming translation.

More information on the sites, and how to visit them "below the fold."

Wednesday, February 20, 2019

Quick translation of news regarding same-sex marriage (or civil union) law in Taiwan

Original article. I've abridged it and arbitrarily inserted my own commentary. Sorry for that, but it's quicker this way. Note that the official text of the bill has not been released yet, and this is just based on reports, so some details may change. Edit: The full text of the draft bill can be accessed here. Original reports seem accurate on a quick skimming; articles 23 and 24 extend all regulations outside the Civil Code and inside Civil Code chapters 1,2, and 5 to same-sex couples. Other rights from 3, 4 (family law, property law) are added piecemeal.

On May 24, 2017, Taiwan's Constitutional Court ruled that the current Civil Code, which defines marriage as between a man and woman, violated the right to marriage and right to equality of same-sex couples, and instructed the government to pass a law in accordance to their ruling within two years. On November 24, 2018, two ballot questions sponsored by conservative religious groups passed which stipulated that the aforementioned statute in the Civil Code which defines marriage a between a man and a woman should not be amended. Today the Executive Yuan has submitted a draft bill which technically implements both (although I think it actually fails to implement the court's order in one aspect). Technically, I think what it is doing is defining a category called "same-sex marriage" outside of the Civil Code which is separate from "marriage." However, as we see below, though this category is almost the same as marriage, it is different in terms of adoption rights.

There's some legal context here (and I may be getting some of it wrong -- let me know if so). Taiwan operates under a civil law system rather than a common law system. In such a system, court rulings do not have the force of law, but courts may compel the government to change laws that they rule as unconstitutional, as they did here, leaving the implementation up to them. This differs from common law systems such as the United States where court rulings immediately have the force of law. For example, after the United States Supreme Court ruled in Obergefell v. Hodges their ruling immediately became the law of the land -- case law is law. By contrast, in Taiwan, the law is defined by various codes (e.g. the Civil Code) which the judiciary does not have the direct power to amend. However, the legislature is required to amend the laws to be in compliance with judicial interpretations of the Constitution.

Separately, Taiwan recently passed a Referendum Law. According to the law, referenda are binding, but they do not automatically enact laws; rather, it is up to the government to pass laws in accordance with the results. Furthermore, referenda cannot be conducted on constitutional questions, meaning any constitutional ruling supersedes referendum results.

The Executive Yuan has submitted a draft bill for the "Judicial Yuan Interpretation 748 Implementation Act" (司法院釋字第748號解釋施行法) which intends to implement May 24th ruling by the Constitutional court within their specified deadline. Up until now, Taiwan has 18 examples of laws which took the name of an "Implementation Act" (施行法), the most well-known being the Two International Covenants Implementation Act (兩公約施行法). The law is to go into effect on May 24th of this year, exactly two years after the court ruling and just in time to meet their deadline.

The draft bill adds 20 articles to the Civil Code, in which the phrases "same sex marriage" (同性婚姻) and "joint livelihood" (共同生活) appear. Regarding the concerns of the anti-marriage equality camp, the draft bill does not contain the phrase "husband and wife" (夫妻), using the term "the pair of involved parties" (雙方當事人) instead.

Furthermore, the draft bill also brings up the issue of religious freedom. Specifically, it states that the religious freedoms of any person or groups will not be affected by the law.

The bill creates a separate "implementation law" (not in the Civil Code) which defines same-sex marriage using wording identical that of the Constitutional Court, stipulating that "two same sex persons, in order to engage in a common livelihood and establish an intimate, exclusive and permanent bond, have the freedom to marry under equal protection" (相同性別之二人,得為經營共同生活之目的,成立具有親密性及排他性之永久結合關係,以達成婚姻自由之平等保護). In other words, same-sex couples may marry under the regulations of Part IV (Family Law) Chapter II (Marriage Law) of the Civil Code (《民法》第4編親屬第2章婚姻規定).

Regarding the contentious issue of same-sex adoption, the draft submitted by the Executive Yuan applies statutes in the Civil Code pertaining to adoption of stepchildren. That is, when same-sex couples marry, they effectively adopt each others' biological children, but they cannot adopt children otherwise. The adoption of stepchildren is to follow the same procedure as for heterosexual couples, i.e. to require the approval of social workers.

The draft bill also stipulates that any issues outside of the Civil Code regarding spouses or marriage not covered in the present text automatically extend to same-sex couples, for example pension laws and tax laws. The law also positively identifies the equal application to same-sex couples of statutes in the Civil Code regarding divorce, custody, duties of spousal care, incest, guardianship, bigamy, marriage fraud, everyday duties, sharing of housework, and mutual inheritance. (Comment: the implication is that any statutes in the Civil Code not explicitly mentioned do not extend to same-sex couples.)

I'm a little disappointed with the law in that it doesn't give same-sex couples the right to adopt amongst other rights in the Civil Code not explicitly granted. I expect adoption will go to the courts again, and this is probably the government's way of punting a contentious issue to them. I think marriage equality groups have a good chance to win, since the previous court ruling was on the basis of equal rights, and personally it makes zero sense to me why same-sex couples shouldn't be able to adopt. That is, why should same-sex adoption be a particularly toxic combination in the eyes of the law... if heterosexual adoption is fine and same-sex biological child rearing is fine? I just don't see an argument here.

Regarding the specific implementation (i.e. wording and separate act vs. Civil Code), I think it's unlikely the court will rule on those issues. Probably it will stay this way (two separate but equal categories) for awhile until it becomes a totally uncontroversial change.

I think it's also likely that conservative groups will push for more ballot questions given their recent success, particularly on adoption. There are real questions here: in my opinion, the CEC (Central Election Commission) should throw out obviously unconstitutional ballot questions. If they don't, I think that it is reasonable for the government to ignore the results, putting the groups who propose unconstitutional ballot questions on the offensive in any court case and discouraging such practice in the future.

Finally, I hope that marriage equality groups will continue to engage society and try to move public opinion; conservative groups organized quickly after the court ruling which contributed to their success in the ballot box. I can see public opinion turning in favor of same sex couples in less than 10 years if they do this right -- in fact, public opinion was actually on their side before the campaign by conservative groups.